The land from the Urals to the Pacific, from Siberia to Gandahara, all play a role, but our Turanian friends only knew of the peoples near their Altaic homeland.

Neighboring peoples fall into categories of ‘Turk’, ‘Arya’, ‘Tatar’, and ‘Khitan’. Here, ‘Tatar’ denotes the ‘Shiwei’ of Chinese records, i.e. proto-mongols, instead of its modern, post-Chengisid usage.

To the east, the great blue sea, the coast of which houses the Chinese, the people with the most complex relationship with the steppe tribes.

Peoples towards the south include ‘White Huns’ (Hephthalites), settled in India/Afghanistan, Persians, Tibetans/Tanguts, and the settled Arya of the Tarim basin. Past Sistan lie the kingdoms of Hind, where the Buddha was born. Past Khwarzem lies the ancient rival of Turan, Iran, but defeated by the ‘Musulman’, who are Kagans of a great many peoples.

To the west, lies Rum, and more closely, the land of the Ionians, Armenians, and Alans. From here and the White Sea, came Christianity, a popular religion among some Tatars and Turks.

People in the northern borderlands include the ‘Forest People’ (Tungusics) to the north-east, ‘Tundra People’ (various Samoyedic peoples), ‘People Beyond the Ural’ (Ugric tribes).

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In the Land of Tur Broccoli21